Saggi e ricerche n. 27

Saggi e ricerche n. 27

Guillermo Pérez Sarrión, Los franceses y la crisis de la Ilustración en España

Madrid, who had come to be the site of the Court as well as of the wealthiest noblemen and clergy, became the biggest place for consumption and main financial market, attracting many migrants who set up communities of nacionales and powerful social and financial networks. This was the case of the French. From the decade of 1760 on, the Spanish reformist policy shifted to nationalism, splitting up from France but paradoxically searching for cash within the trade and financial French companies of Madrid, and so upsetting the financial Navarrese and Vasque groups. Regarding to French, they provided cash and access to the European debt market at Amsterdam, partly taking in exchange important commercial privileges over America. The French Revolution triggered the expulsion of French people from Spain (1791-1813) by the control and subsequent send-off of residents, the bankruptcy of many French companies at Madrid and Amsterdam (1791-1794) and new “patriotic” local actions of expulsion along the War of Independence (1808-1814).


Claude Morange, ¿Afrancesados o Josefinos?

The essay studies in depth the terms employed to define the Spaniards who collaborated with José Bonaparte’s régime during the Peninsular War. According to the Author the indiscriminate usage of these words (afrancesado and josefino) creates an ideological confusion, scientifically very dangerous. To obviate it the proposal is to employ josefino for the followers of Joseph, whilst afrancesado should be used only for the multiple aspects of the French, especially in the XVIIIth Century and in the cultural field.


Emilio Luis Lara López, Burguesía y religiosidad popular en la España meridional del siglo XIX

In the XIXth Century popular religiousness as performed by the penitential brotherhoods evolved following the society’s socio-economical changes, and thus in the first third of the century they kept the ideology and mores inherited from the Baroque. During the stormy reign of Fernando VII the brotherhoods were faithful defenders of the old order, identifying themselves with the most reactionary stances of the Church. But during Isabel II’s reign ther was a radical change, as in this period the bourgeoisie began entering into the governments of the brotherhoods, and started moulding a popular religiousness akin to their social interests. In the revolutionary Sexenio the brotherhoods fought against anticlericalism increasing the luxury of their outdoor rituals. And lastly, during the Restoration the conservative bourgeois Catholicism will discover in popular religiousness a capital way for defending in Southern Spain the existing political régime.


Marco Cervioni, L’Italia in alcuni giornali spagnoli (1919-1921)

Studying three daily newspapers: “ABC”, “el Socialista” and “el Sol” for the period 1919-1921, the Author shows how the Madrid’s press received and commented the news arriving from Italy. A keen attention to the facts and information coming from Italy can be clearly perceived, and these facts quite often were read and interpreted according to what in the meantime was happening in Spain. During that period the attention was focused on some main topics such as the liberal state’s crisis, the class struggle’s worsening and the first appearances of Fascism on the Italian political stage.


Marco Cipolloni, Mes que mai. Commercio e progresso economico in Catalogna

In comparison with the discourse of other nations and nationalisms, in Spain and abroad, the rethorics of Catalonia and the Catalanism strongly emphasizes mainly economical and technological progress. Focusing on the deep changes in Barcelona’s urban environment over the last one hundred years and on the propaganda activities of the 1992 Olympic Games, this essay shows how such a mythology leads to a dynamic vision of the collective identity, resulting from an oligarchical notion of the society and from a vision more cultural than ethnical of nationalism. In this way it appears possible, albeit with conflicts and contradictions, the coexistence of traditional ideals with innovation practices, and also of transformation’s myths with political and social transformism’s


Adriano Roccucci, I “nazionalisti-fascisti” e l’avvento del franchismo. L’intransigenza antibolscevica nella crisi geopolitica europea

Which was the vision that the nationalistic sector of Italian Fascism had of the Spanish civil war? Europe’s crisis was the background of what was happening in the Spanish conflict. The civilisation’s struggle against Russian Bolshevism, asiatic and anti-european, and the perspective of a shift of Western civilisation’s barycentre towards the USA were seen as the biggest dangers for Europe, that risked to lose the hegemonic role played until then in the historical process. The anti-bolshevic intransigence asked for by the Spanish civil war was the only chance of restoring Europe’s geopolitical role in the world.


Inmaculada Cordero Olivero, El exilio Español en México ante la transición política

Many pages have been written on the exile’s forgetfulness, on the debt incurred by democratic Spain towards those who left in 1939, and on exiles’ impossibility and inability to reinstate themselves in a country so much different from the one they left in the Thirties. Along these lines the present work pretends to an understanding of such estrangement, studying how the exiles lived these crucial years, how they understood the agreement and the political reform, the Spaniards’ attitude and that of the political parties, the King’s role. Through oral and written sources the Author seeks to discover how the Spanish exiles in México knew and interpreted what was happening in the Peninsula between 1975 and 1982, so that, having reached a conclusion, it would be possible to understand why they did feel alien to a Spain that they knew no more.

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